Definitions are taken from The Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, 7th Edition (Dictionary), the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP), and Building Owners and Managers Association International (BOMA).
A lease in which the tenant pays all expenses including structural maintenance, building reserves, and management; often a long-term lease to a credit tenant. (Dictionary)
The process of retiring a debt or recovering a capital investment, typical through scheduled, systematic repayment of the principal; a program of periodic contributions to a sinking fund or debt retirement fund. (Dictionary)
As Is Market Value
The estimate of the market value of real property in its current physical condition, use, and zoning as of the appraisal date. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines). Note that the use of the “as is” phrase is specific to appraisal regulations pursuant to FIRREA applying to appraisals prepared for regulated lenders in the United States. The concept of an “as is” value is not included in the Standards of Valuation Practice of the Appraisal Institute, Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice, or International Valuation Standards. (Dictionary)
The minimum rent stipulated in a lease. (Dictionary)
The year on which escalation clauses in a lease are based. (Dictionary)
Building Common Area
In office buildings, the areas of the building that provide services to building tenants but are not included in the office area or store area of any specific tenant. These areas may include, but shall not be limited to, main and auxiliary lobbies, atrium spaces at the level of the finished floor, concierge areas or security desks, conference rooms, lounges or vending areas, food service facilities, locker or shower facilities, mail rooms, fire control rooms, fully enclosed courtyards outside the exterior walls, and building core and service areas such as fully enclosed mechanical or equipment rooms. Specifically excluded from building common area are floor common areas, parking space, portions of loading docks outside the building line, and major vertical penetrations. (BOMA)
Building Rentable Area
The sum of all floors rentable areas. Floor rentable area is the result of subtracting from the gross measured area of a floor the major vertical penetrations on that same floor. It is generally fixed for the life of the building and is rarely affected by the changes in corridor size or configuration.
The value of multiple units, subdivided plots, or properties in a portfolio as though sold together in a single transaction. (Dictionary)
A formal written acknowledgment by an appropriate unit of local government that a new construction or renovation project is at the stage where it meets applicable health and safety codes and it ready for commercial or residential occupancy. (Dictionary)
Common Area Maintenance (CAM)
The expense of operating and maintaining common areas; may or may not include management charges and usually does not include capital expenditures on tenant improvements or other improvements to the property. (Dictionary)
The amount of money charged to tenants for their shares of maintaining a [shopping] center’s common area. The charge that a tenant pays for shared services and facilities such as electricity, security, and maintenance of parking lots. Items charged to common area maintenance may include cleaning services, parking lot sweeping and maintenance, snow removal, security, [amenities,] and upkeep. (ICSC - International Council of Shopping Centers, 4th Ed.)
An attached, detached, or stacked unit within or attached to a structure with common areas that are held as tenants in common (an undivided interest) with other owners in the project. The units can be residential, commercial, industrial, or parking spaces or boat docks. These units are commonly defined by state laws in their locations. Because units can be stacked on top of other units, these units can be defined both vertically and horizontally. (Dictionary)
An interest in real estate restricting future land use to preservation, conservation, wildlife habitat, or some combination of those uses. A conservation easement may permit farming, timber harvesting, or other uses of a rural nature as well as some types of conservation-oriented development to continue, subject to the easement. (Dictionary)
A type of value that reflects the amount a property or component of a property contributes to the value of another asset or to the property as a whole. The change in the value of a property as a whole, whether positive or negative, resulting from the addition or deletion of a property component. Also called deprival value in some countries. (Dictionary)
The ratio of net operating income to annual debt service (DCR = N01-1m), which measures the relative ability of a property to meet its debt service out of net operating income; also called debt service coverage ratio (DSCR). A larger DCR typically indicates a greater ability for a property to withstand a reduction of income, providing an improved safety margin for a lender. (Dictionary)
A provision written into a deed that limits the use of land. Deed restrictions usually remain in effect when title passes to subsequent owners. (Dictionary)
In appraisal, a loss in property value from any cause; the difference between the cost of an improvement on the effective date of the appraisal and the value of the improvement on the same date.
In accounting, an allocation of the original cost of an asset, amortizing the cost over the asset’s life; calculated using a variety of standard techniques. (Dictionary)
The most probable price that a specified interest in property should bring uner the following conditions:
Consummation of a sale withing a specified time, which is shorter than the typical exposure time for such a property in that market.
The property is subjected to market conditions prevailing as of the date of valuation;
Both the buyer and seller are acting prudently and knowledgeable;
The seller is under compulsion to sell;
The buyer is typically motivated;
Both parties are acting in what they consider to be their best interests;
An adequate marketing effort will be made during the exposure time;
Payment will be made in cash in U.S. dollars (or the local currency) or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto; and
The price represents the normal consideration for the property sold, unaffected by special or creative financing or sales concessions granted by anyone associated with the sale.
This definition can also be modified to provide for valuation with specified financing terms. (Dictionary)
Double Net (Net Net) Lease
An alternative term for a type of net lease. In some markets, a net net lease is defined as a lease in which the tenant is responsible to pay both property taxes and premiums for insuring the building(s). (Valbridge) (The market definition of a double net lease varies depending on the market)
The right to use another’s land for a stated purpose. (Dictionary)
Exterior Insulation Finishing System. This is a type of exterior wall cladding system. Sometimes referred to as a dry-vit.
The date on which the appraisal opinion applies. (SVP)
The date to which an appraiser’s analyses, opinions, and conclusions apply; also referred to as date of value. (USPAP, 2020-2021 ed.)
The date that a lease goes into effect. (Dictionary)
Effective Gross Income (EG1)
The anticipated income from all operations of the real estate after an allowance is made for vacancy and collection losses and an addition is made for any other income. (Dictionary)
Total base rent, or minimum rent stipulated in a lease, over the specified lease term minus rent concessions; the rent that is effectively paid by a tenant net of financial concessions provided by a landlord. (T1s). (Dictionary)
Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Rubber. A type of synthetic rubber typically used for roof coverings.
A clause in an agreement that provides for the adjustment of a price or rent based on some event or index. E.g., a provision to increase rent if operating expenses increase; also called escalator clause, expense recovery clause or stop clause. (Dictionary)
A signed statement by a party (such as a tenant or a mortgagee) certifying, for another’s benefit, that certain facts are correct, such as that a lease exists, that there are no defaults, and that rent is paid to a certain date. (Black’s) In real estate, a buyer of rental property typically requests estoppel certificates from existing tenants. Sometimes referred to as an estoppel letter. (Dictionary)
Land that is not needed to serve or support the existing use. The highest and best use of the excess land may or may not be the same as the highest and best use of the improved parcel. Excess land has the potential to be sold separately and is valued separately. (Dictionary)
The amount by which contract rent exceeds market rent at the time of the appraisal; create by a lease favorable to the landlord (lessor) and may reflect unusual management, unknowledgeable or unusually motivated parties, a lease execution in an earlier, stronger market, or an agreement of the parties. (Dictionary)
A clause in a lease that limits the landlord’s expense obligation, which results in the lessee paying operating expenses above a stated level or amount. (Dictionary)
The time a property remains on the market.
An opinion, based on supporting market data, of the length of time that the property interest being appraised would have been offered on the market prior to the hypothetical consummation of a sale at market value on the effective date of appraisal. (USPAP, 2020-2021 ed.)
An assignment-specific assumption as of the effective date regarding uncertain information used in an analysis which, if found to be false, could alter the appraiser’s opinions or conclusions.
Absolute ownership unencumbered by any other interest or estate, subject only to the limitations imposed by the governmental powers of taxation, eminent domain, police power, and escheat. (Dictionary)
Floor Common Area
In an office building, the areas on a floor such as washrooms, janitorial closets, electrical rooms, telephone rooms, mechanical rooms, elevator lobbies, and public corridors which are available primarily for the use of tenants on that floor. In essence, floor common area represents all of the area on the floor that is common to that respective floor with the exception of those areas that penetrate through the floor, such as the elevator shaft and stairwell. The significant point to be made is that floor common area is not part of the tenant’s usable area. (BOMA)
Full Service (Gross) Lease
A lease in which the landlord receives stipulated rent and is obligated to pay all of the property’s operating ad fixed expenses; also called a full-serivce lease. (Dictionary)
Furniture, Fixtures, and Equipment (FF&E)
Business trade fixtures and personal property, exclusive of inventory. (Dictionary)
An outdated label for the market value of all the tangible and intangible assets of an established and operating business with an indefinite life, as if sold in aggregate; more accurately termed the market value of a the going concern or market valy of the total assets of the business. (Dictionary)
Gross Building Area (GBA)
Total floor area of a building, excluding unenclosed areas, measured from the exterior of the walls of the above-grade area. This includes mezzanines and basements if and when typically include in the market area of the type of property involved.
Gross leasable area plus all common areas.
For residential space, the total area of all floor levels measured from the exterior of the walls and including the superstructure and substructure basement; typically does not include garage space. (Dictionary)
Gross Measured Area
The total area of a building enclosed by the dominant portion (the portion of the inside finished surface of the permanent outer building wall which is 50 percent or more of the verical floor-to-ceiling dimension, at the given point being measured as one moves horizontally along the wall), excluding parking areas and loading docks (or portions of the same) outside the building line. It is generally not sue for leasing purposes and is calculated on a floor-by-floor basic. (BOMA)
Gross Up Method
A method of calculating variable operating expenses in income-producing properties when less than 100% occupancy is assumed. Expenses reimbursed based on the amount of occupied space, rather than on the total building area, are described at “grossed up.” (Dictionary)
Gross Sellout Value (Sum of the Retail Values)
The sum of the separate and distinct market value opinions for each of the units in a condominium, subdivision development, or portfolio of properties, as of the date of valuation. The aggregate of retail values does not represent the value of all the units as though sold together in a single transaction; it is simply the total of the individual market value conclusions. An appraisal has an effective date but summing the sale prices of multiple units over an extended period of time will not be the value on that one day unless the prices are discounted to make the value equivalent to what another developer or investor would pay for the bulk purchase of the units. Also called the aggregate of the retail values, aggregate retail selling price or sum of the retail values. (Dictionary)
A lease that grants the right to use and occupy land. Improvements made by the ground lessee typically revert to the ground lessor at the end of the lease term. (Dictionary)
The rent paid for the right to use and occupy land according to the terms of a ground lease; the portion of the total rent allocated to the underlying land. (Dictionary)
Heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) system. A unit that regulates the temperature and distribution of heat and fresh air throughout a building. (Dictionary)
Highest and Best Use
The reasonably probable use of property that results in the highest value. The four criteria that the highest and best use must meet are legal permissibility, physical possibility, financial feasibility, and maximum productivity.
The use of an asset that maximized it’s potential and that is possible, legally permissible, and financially feasible. The highest and best use may be for continuation of an asset’s existing use of for some alternative use. This is determined by the use that a market participant would have in mind for the asset when formulating the price that it would willing to bid. (IVS)
[The] highest and most profitable use for which the property is adaptable and needed or likely to be needed in the reasonable near future. (Uniform Appraisal Standrads for Federal Land Acqusitions) (Dictionary)
A condition that is presumed to b true when it is known to be false. (SVP)
A condition, directly related to a specific assignment, which is contrary to what is known by the appraiser to exist on the effective date of the assignment results but is used for the purpose of analysis.
Comment: Hypothetical conditions are contrary to known facts about physical, legal, or economic characteristics of the subject property; or about conditions external to the property, such as market conditions or trends; or about the integrity of data used in an analysis. (USPAP)
The estimated cost, at current prices as of the effective date of valuation, of a substitute for the building being valued, using modern materials and current standards, design, and layout for insurance coverage purposes guaranteeing that damaged property is replaced with new property (i.e., depreciation is not deducted). (Dictionary)
The value of a property to a particular investor or class of investors based on the investor’s specific requirements. Investment value may be different from market value because it depends on a set of investment criteria that are not necessarily typical of the market. (Dictionary)
The value of an asset to the owner or a prospective owner given individual investment or operational objectives (may also be known as worth). (IVS)
In condemnation, the amount of loss for which a property owner is compensated when his or her property is taken. Just compensation should put the owner in as good a position pecuniarily as he or she would have been if the property had not been taken. (Dictionary)
The ownership interest held by the lessor, which includes the right to receive the contract rent specified in the lease plus the reversionary right when the lease expires. (Dictionary)
Leasehold Interest (Leasehold Estate)
The right held by the lessee to use and occupy real estate for a stated term and under the conditions specified in the lease. (Dictionary)
See also Positive Leasehold and Negative Leasehold.
One who has the right to occupancy and use of the property of another for a period of time according to a lease agreement. (Dictionary)
One who conveys the rights of occupancy and use to others under a lease agreement. (Dictionary)
The most probable price that a specified interest in property should bring under the following conditions:
Consummation of a sale within a short time period.
The property is subjected to market conditions prevailing as of the date of valuation.
Both the buyer and seller are acting prudently and knowledgeably.
The seller is under extreme compulsion to sell.
The buyer is typically motivated.
Both parties are acting in what they consider to be their best interests.
A normal marketing effort is not possible due to the brief exposure time.
Payment will be made in cash in U.S. dollars (or the local currency) or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto.
The price represents the normal consideration for the property sold, unaffected by special or creative financing or sales concessions granted by anyone associated with the sale. (Dictionary)
Loan to Value Ratio (LTV)
The ratio between a mortgage loan and the value of the property pledged as security, usually expressed as a percentage. (Dictionary)
Stairs, elevator shafts, flues, pipe shafts, vertical ducts, and the like, and their enclosing walls. Atria, lightwells and similar penetrations above the finished floor are included in this definition. Not included, however, are vertical penetrations built for the private use of a tenant occupying office areas on more than one floor. Structural columns, openings for vertical electric cable or telephone distribution, and openings for plumbing lines are not considered to be major vertical penetrations. (BOMA)
The most probable rent that a property should bring in a competitive and open market under all the conditions requisite to a fair lease transaction, the lessee, and the lessor each acting prudently and knowledgeably, and assuming the rent is not affected by undue stimulus. Implicit in this definition is the execution of a lease as of a specified date under conditions whereby:
Lessee and lessor are typically motivated;
Both parties are well informed or well advised, and acting in what they consider their best interests;
Payment is made in terms of cash or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto; and
The rent reflects specified terms and conditions, such as permitted uses, use restrictions, expense obligations,duration, concessions, rental adjustments and revaluations, renewal and purchase options, and tenant improvements (TIs). (Appraisal Institute)
The following definition of market value is used by agencies that regulate federally insured financial institutions in the United States: The most probable price that a property should bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller each acting prudently and knowledgeably, and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. Implicit in this definition is the consummation of a sale as of a specified date and the passing of title from seller to buyer under conditions whereby:
Buyer and seller are typically motivated;
Both parties are well informed or well advised, and acting in what they consider their own best interests;
A reasonable time is allowed for exposure in the open market;
Payment is made in terms of cash in United States dollars or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto; and
The price represents the normal consideration for the property sold unaffected by special or creative financing or sales concessions granted by anyone associated with the sale. (Dictionary; 12 C.F.R. Part 34.42(g); 55 Federal Register 34696, August 24, 1990, as amended at 57 Federal Register 12202, April 9, 1992; 59 Federal Register 29499, June 7, 1994)
An opinion of the amount of time it might take to sell a real or personal property interest at the concluded market value level during the period immediately after the effective date of an appraisal. Marketing time differs from exposure time, which is always presumed to precede the effective date of an appraisal. (Advisory Opinion 7 of the Appraisal Standards Board of the Appraisal Foundation)
A lease in which a part or the entire property is leased to a single entity (the master lessee) in return for a stipulated rent. The master lessee then subleases the property to multiple tenants.
The first lease in a sandwich lease. (Dictionary)
Modified Gross Lease
A lease in which the landlord receives stipulated rent and is obligated to pay some, but not all, of the property's operating and fixed expenses. Since assignment of expenses varies among modified gross leases, expense responsibility must always be specified. In some markets, a modified gross lease may be called a double net lease, net net lease, partial net lease, or semi-gross lease. (Dictionary)
A lease situation in which the market rent is less than the contract rent. (Dictionary)
The ratio of total operating expenses to effective gross income (7-0E/EGI); the complement of the net income ratio, i.e., OER = 7 — NOR (Dictionary)
A legal contract, typically purchased for a stated consideration, that permits but does not require the holder of the option (known as the optionee) to buy, sell, or lease real estate for a stipulated period of time in accordance with specified terms; a unilateral right to exercise a privilege. (Dictionary)
Divided or undivided rights in real estate that represent less than the whole, i.e., a fractional interest such as a tenancy in common or easement. (Dictionary)
A tenant's portion of operating expenses that may be composed of common area maintenance (CAM), real property taxes, property insurance, and any other expenses determined in the lease agreement to be paid by the tenant. (Dictionary)
A lease in which the rent or some portion of the rent represents a specified percentage of the volume of business, productivity, or use achieved by the tenant. (Dictionary)
A lease situation in which the market rent is greater than the contract rent. (Dictionary)
Potential Gross Income (PGI)
The total income attributable to property at full occupancy before vacancy and operating
expenses are deducted. (Dictionary)
Prospective Opinion of Value
A value opinion effective as of a specified future date. The term does not define a type of value. Instead, it identifies a value opinion as being effective at some specific future date. An opinion of value as of a prospective date is frequently sought in connection with projects that are proposed, under construction, or under conversion to a new use, or those that have not yet achieved sellout or a stabilized level of long-term occupancy. (Dictionary)
The estimated cost to construct, at current prices as of a specific date, a substitute for a building or other improvements, using modern materials and current standards, design, and layout. (Dictionary)
The estimated cost to construct, at current prices as of the effective date of the appraisal, an exact duplicate or replica of the building being appraised, using the same materials, construction standards, design, layout, and quality of workmanship and embodying all of the deficiencies, super adequacies, and obsolescence of the subject building. (Dictionary)
Retrospective Value Opinion
A value opinion effective as of a specified historical date. The term retrospective does not define a type of value. Instead, it identifies a value opinion as being effective at some specific prior date. Value as of a historical date is frequently sought in connection with property tax appeals, damage models, lease renegotiation, deficiency judgments, estate tax, and condemnation. Inclusion of the type of value with this term is appropriate, e.g., retrospective market value opinion." (Dictionary)
The interest held by the sandwich leaseholder when the property is subleased to another party; a type of leasehold estate. (Dictionary)
An agreement in which the lessee in a prior lease conveys the right of use and occupancy of a property to another, the sublessee, for a specific period of time, which may or may not be coterminous with the underlying lease term. (Dictionary)
A contractual arrangement in which a party with a claim to certain assets agrees to make that claim junior, or subordinate, to the claims of another party. (Dictionary)
Land that is not currently needed to support the existing use but cannot be separated from the property and sold off for another use. Surplus land does not have an independent highest and best use and may or may not contribute value to the improved parcel. (Dictionary)
Thermoplastic polyolefin, a synthetic roof covering.
Triple Net (Net Net Net) Lease
An alternative term for a type of net lease. In some markets, a net net net lease is defined as a lease in which the tenant assumes all expenses (fixed and variable) of operating a property except that the landlord is responsible for structural maintenance, building reserves, and management; also called NNN lease, net net net lease, or fully net lease. (Dictionary)
(The market definition of a triple net lease varies; in some cases tenants pay for items such as roof repairs, parking lot repairs, and other similar items.)
The measured area of an office area, store area, or building common area on a floor. The total of all the usable areas for a floor shall equal floor usable area of that same floor. (BOMA)
The amount determined by discounting the future cash flows (including the ultimate proceeds of disposal) expected to be derived from the use of an asset at an appropriate rate that allows for the risk of the activities concerned.(FASB Accounting Standards Codification, Master Glossary)
Formerly used in valuation practice as a synonym for contributory value or use value. (Dictionary)
VTAB (Value of the Total Assets of a Business)
The total amount that the real property, tangible personal property, and intangible property assets of a business would sell for in an asset-based transaction. (Dictionary)